Luther called them “a heavy burden, a plague, a pestilence, a sheer misfortune,” adding that “we are at fault in not slaying them.” For Voltaire, they “display an irreconcilable hatred against all nations”; for Rousseau, the Jewish race was “always a foreigner amongst other men.” German philosopher Johann Herder called them “a widely diffused republic of cunning usurers.” Kant saw them as “a nation of deceivers.”

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